Доксы и парадоксы времени. Лекция 20. Иоанн Скот Эриугена: четыре момента бытия. Возвращение/Воскрешение

25.05.2021

Иоанн Скот Эриугена

О разделениях в природе

Определение природы

Природа есть все что есть и чего нет

Разделения природы

  1. Non creatur et creat Бог
  2. Creatur et creat Примордиальные начала

these primordial causes of things are what the Greeks call πρωτότυπα, that is, primordial exemplars, or προορίσματα, that is, predestinations, or predefinitions. They are also called by the same θεῖα θελήματα that is, divine volitions. They are commonly called ἰδέαιalso, that is, species or forms in which

  1. Creatur et non creat  Вещи
  2. Nec creat nec creatur  Бог

Негация предыдущего есть аффирмация последующего аффирмация предыдущего есть негация последующего

And the same rule is found to apply in all the celestial essences until one reaches the highest order of all.

This, however, terminates [in] the highest negation [upward] ; for its negation confirms the existence of no higher creature.

For those things which

  1. in the processions of natures appear to be divided and partitioned into many are in the primordial causes unified and one,
  2. and to this unity they will return and in it they will eternally and immutably remain.

For in Him  they are not two things but one; in our contemplation, however, since we form one concept of God from consideration of Him as Beginning and another concept when contemplating Him as End, they appear to be as it were two forms, formed from one and thesame simplicity of the Divine Nature as a consequence of the double direction of our contemplation.

these two forms are discerned not in God but in our contemplation!!!

Максим Исповедник

Структуры интеллектуального времени: метафизическая эсхатология

Creatio et Reditus

Творение и возвращение

Бытие esse

Благобытие donum

Бытие  природа datum  esse videlicet

вечное бытие non datum Donor semper esse

Между ними благобытие donum – Gratia благодать well-being

Enter esse et eternaliter esse mediates quaedam constituitur, quae dicitur bene esse.

Благобытие = продукт свободной воли + божественной Благодати

Voluntas intellectualis

Воскресение относится к благобытию – отчасти это опора на природу отчасти на Бога

Эхо

Благода́ть (др.-евр. חן, др.-греч. χάρις, лат. gratia)

Datum vs Donum

Now between “dationes” and “donationes” the difference is this; “dationes” are and are said to be the distributions by which every nature subsists, while “donationes” are the distributions of grace by which every subsisting nature is adorned.

Therefore

  • nature is a “datio”,
  • grace is a “donatio”.

For every perfect creature consists of nature and grace.

the universe of the whole creation is eternal in the Word of God.

the divine volitions and the things which God has made are one and the same.

for God nothing is future since He includes within Himself all times and all that is in them.

Человек и ангел: диалектика

Аффирмация человека = негация ангела

Негация человка = аффирмация ангела

For if man is a rational, mortal, risible animal,

then an angel is certainly neither a rational animal nor mortal nor risible :

но далее ангел есть рациональное животное (херувим)

likewise, if an angel is an essential intellectual motion about God and [about] the causes of things,

then man is certainly not an essential intellectual motion about God and the causes of things.

Но ум (нус, интеллект человека) есть сущностное интеллектуальное движение вокруг Бога и первых причин

У О Миры но нет в 444с у Дронке в латинском тексте!

Ангелы = разумные бессмертные животные

angels as rational immortal animals

Люди = разумные смертные животные

В человеческой природе животное в образе и образ в животном

Двойное творение из земли и из души

Ангелы тоже животные духи но в них только животное в образе, а образа в животном нет

Отсюда святые животные и Херувимы

4 херувима дух+зверь и ОДИН ИХ НИХ Человек – херуб, юноша…

mutual relation and unity which exist between intelligible and rational natures

 not only is the angelic nature established in the human but also the human is established in the angelic.

the mutual knowledge by which angel understands man and man angel.

Человек хранение взгляда наверх

триада души

  1. нус, νοῦς  сущность нашей души intellectus agens
  2. логос λόγος δύναμις intellectus possibilis
  3. дианойя (внутреннее чувство) intellectus passivus

There are three universal motions of the soul,

  • of which the first is of the mind,
  • the second of the reason,
  • the third of sense.

And the first is simple and surpasses the nature of the soul herself and cannot be interpreted [that is, it cannot have knowledge of that about which it moves] ; “by this motion the soul moves about the unknown God, but, because of His excellence, she has no kind of knowledge of Him from the things that are” as to what He is [that is to say, she cannot find Him in any essence or substance or in anything which can be uttered or understood; for He surpasses everything that is and that is not, and there is no way in which He can be defined as to what he is].

Ум апофатический орган

The second motion is that by which she “defines the unknown” God “as Cause” of all. For she defines God as being Cause of all things; and this motion is within the nature of the soul, “and by it she moves naturally and takes upon herself by the operation of her science all the natural reasons (which are) formative of all things, which subsist as having been eternally made in Him Who is known only as Cause” [for He is known because He is Cause], that is, she expresses (them) in herself through her knowledge of them, and the knowledge itself is begotten by the first motion in the second.

Катафатический ум -- каузальность

The third motion is “composite, (and is that) by which” the soul “comes into contact with that which is outside her as though by certain signs and re-forms within herself the reasons of visible things”. It is called composite not because it is not simple in itself as the first and second are simple, but because its first knowledge of the reasons of sensible things does not come from (the things) themselves.

θεοφάνειαι and by the Latins divinae apparitiones, and through them, through the first causes,

virtus - causes

Феноменология рассудка

For first (the soul) receives the phantasies of the things themselves through the exterior sense, (which is) fivefold because of the number of the corporeal instruments in which and through which it operates, and by gathering them to itself (and) sorting them out it sets them in order; then, getting through them to the reasons of the things of which they are the phantasies, she moulds them [I mean the reasons] and shapes them into conformity with herself.

The three motions of the soul, that is,

  1. intellect which is also called (her)  essence, and
  2. reason which (is called her) power, and
  3. sense which (is called her) operation,

Две фантазии

Фантазия поднимающаяся над телами - в чувственном  но не чувственна сама

Фантазия формирующаяся в душе -- чувственна сама и принимает первую фантазию = внешнее чувство

ἄισθήσις

αἰσθητήρια – αἰσθήσεως τήρια  охрана чувств – их 5

We ourselves are not other than our understandings

Non enim aliud sumus, aliud noster intellectus.

В Конце унификация – андрогинат

the unification of man, that is, of his two sexes,  into the original unity of nature in which there was neither male nor female but simply man

because man is better than sex!!!

for male and female are not names of his nature, but of its partition through

disobedience, whereas “man” is the special name of his nature ; —or (that) the inhabited globe and paradise will be brought together into that one earth which is the second species of the sensible creature divided into heaven and earth in such a way that even the earth will

[not only] be without variety of parts but [also] will be recalled into a simplicity of nature so as to be believed to be a spiritual rather than a corporeal nature <such as it would be if man were not in a state of sin> , and (so as to) let us understand the words “not divided in

him”, that is in man [for in man all things are unified] “by the difference of its” [the earth’s, that is] “parts” [in the sense that] as there will be no diversity of parts in man because no (element of) composition will remain in him, so also the earth’s nature will be so  united with him as to seem one with him and in him. For he says : “but rather so gathered together that none of its parts suffers annihilation”, that is, separation.

whole man, as he says, will become “weightless spirit” and will not be “held down to the earth

by any weight of the body nor hindered from ascending to the heavens”.

[Now we hold that the end of this sensible world will be nothing else but its return into God and into its primordial causes in which it naturally subsists.]

For although spiritual sexes are understood to exist in the soul — for νοῦς, that is, intellect, is a kind of male in the soul, while αἴσθησις , that is, sense,

is a kind of female.

“Gyrating in a gyre the spirit goes forth and returns into its own place.” For the fiery spirit

because of the exceeding subtlety of its nature traverses all things and is made all things in all things, and returns into itself, since it is the substantial source and origin of all visible things and for that reason is called by the Greeks φοετῶν, that is to say, “The Returning One” (Revertens). For, after traversing all the bodies of the world both visibly and invisibly it returns into itself and calls back into itself all things which receive the beginning of their generation from it.

name of “Nothing” nihilum

I should believe that by that name (“Nothing”) is signified the ineffable and incomprehensible and inaccessible brilliance of the Divine Goodness which is unknown to all intellects whether human or angelic — for it is superessential and supernatural —, which while it

is contemplated in itself neither is nor was nor shall be, for it is understood to be in none of the things that exist because it surpasses all things, but when, by a certain ineffable descent into the things that are, it is beheld by the mind’s eye, it alone is found to be in allthings, and it is and was and shall be.

Therefore so long as it is understood to be incomprehensible by reason of its transcendence it

is not unreasonably called “Nothing”  

but when it begins to appear in its theophanies it is said to proceed, as it were, out of nothing into something, and that which is properly thought of as beyond all essence is also properly known in all essence, and therefore every visible and invisible creature can be called a theophany, that is, a divine apparition.

For every order of natures from the highest to the lowest, that is, from the celestial essences to the last bodies of this visible world, the more secretly it is understood, the closer it is seento approach the divine brilliance.

Hence the inaccessible brilliance of the celestial powers is often called by theology darkness.

He is the age of ages, subsisting before the ages

  1. So when we have a clear perception of the Divine Nature as the Beginning and Cause of all things — for He is ἄναρχος and ἀναίτιος , that is, without beginning and without cause, for before Him there is nothing to stand in relation to Him as beginning or cause, but He Himself creates the nature of all things of which He is the Cause and Beginning — we not inappropriately call that Nature creative and not created ;  for it creates and suffers itself to be created by none.
  2. But when we recognize the same Nature, namely the Divine, to be the End of all things beyond which nothing and in which all things eternally subsist and are universally God, we rightly call it neither created nor creative: not created because it is created by none, nor creative because here it no longer creates, for all things  have been converted into their eternal reasons in which they shall and do remain eternally, and cease also to be called by the name of creature.

For God shall be all in all, and every creature shall be overshadowed, that is, converted to God, as the stars when the sun arises. Do you then see how we are able to call one and the same nature, namely the Divine, not created but creative when we consider it as the Beginning, but neither created nor creative when we regard it as the End.

the inconstant flux of formless matter — for it is defined thus : Matter is the mutabilityof mutable things capacious of all forms.

Вода

Объяснение зрения и слуха через огонь и воздух

Зрение=огонь из сердца

For sight is a kind of light which first rises out of the fire in the heart and then ascends to the highest part of the head (namely to that part which is called by the Greeks μῆνιγξ but by the Latins “membranula”, by which the brain is surrounded and protected), having passed through certain channels to the eyebrows and the pupils of the eyes, whence in a very swift rush it leaps forth like the rays of the Sun and reaches with such speed the places and bodies that are near or stand very far off before the eyelids and the brows.

Слух – воздух из легких

Again, hearing is a certain very subtle ringing which first issues forth from the breathing of the lungs and rises upwards to the same part of the head through its own hidden paths and, poured into the spirals of the ears, bursts forth and, mingling with the parts of the air which are close to it or further away, hastens to receive without any delay whatever resounds in it.

the material and external body is like a garment and is not improperly regarded as the outward

expression of the internal and natural body : for it is moved through times and ages, suffering increase and loss of itself, while the interior body remains ever immutably in its proper state.

Тело первого творения – рай

Тело воскресения

For everything which comes into being in the world and is composed of the stuff of the

world must of necessity be dissolved and perish with the world.

It was then necessary for the exterior and material body to be resolved into those elements from which it was put together:

but it was not necessary that it should perish, because it came from God.

The interior body, of course, endures forever and abides without change in those principles according to which it was constituted with and in and through and for the sake of the soul.

material body which is added to it is not so much to be regarded as a true body as a kind of mutable and corruptible garment of the true and natural body.

in God nothing is before and nothing after, because for him there is nothing past, nor future, nor the passage from past to future, for “to Him all things are at once present.”

Этапы Возвращения

The end of this present life, then, is the beginning of the next; and the death of the fleshis the token of the restoration of our nature, and the Return to our pristine integrity.

  1. The first step in the Return of our human nature is taken when the body suffers dissolution and turns back into the four elements of the sensible world from which it was composed.
  2. The second is fulfilled at the Resurrection when each shall take his own body out of the common fund of the four elements.
  3. The third when body is changed into soul.
  4. The fourth when soul, and in fact the whole human nature, shall revert to its Primordial Causes, which ever and immutably abide in God.
  5. The fifth when that spirit with its Causes is absorbed into God as air is absorbed in light. For when there is nothing but God alone, God will be all things in all things.

The change of human nature into God is not to be thought of as a perishing of the substance but as a miraculous and ineffable Return into that former condition which it had lost by its transgression.

no creature, whether visible or invisible, can fall into nothing.

two greatest errors to which mankind is prone are, according to Augustine, “to think that there is a place above heaven, or a time before the world.”

secular time came into being with and at the same moment as the world, and cannot be regarded as prior to it.

St. Augustine says of God:

  1. “He moves Himself without place or time;
  2. He moves the created spirit through time but not in place ;
  3. He moves the body through place and time.”

place and time shall perish

 Деления

  1. Всё: Творец и тварь
  2. Тварь: умная и чувственная
  3. Тварь чувственная: небо и земля
  4. Земля: парадиз и ойкумена (человечество)
  5. Человек: муж и жена

So it is from the unification of the division of man into the two sexes that the Return and unification through all the other divisions will take its start. For in the Resurrection sexual differentiation will be done away, and human nature will be made one, and there will be only man as it would have been if man had not sinned.

Восстановление единства:

  1. мужа и жены в мужа в Воскресении
  2. ойкумены (человечество) в Рай
  3. земли (рая) и неба в Небо
  4. Неба (всего чувственного) в Ум
  5. твари (Ума) и Творца

this wonderful and ineffable unification does not involve the confusion of the individual essences and substances.

the end of the world is nothing else but its return into its Causes and is therefore a transmutation into something better than what it now is.

  1. the first stage in the Return consists in the dissolution of elements of the human body
  2. second stage is its resurrection.

Проблема зла

every evil man is evil because of evil, and thus when evil comes to an end, the evil man must cease to exist also. For when the cause ceases, the effect must cease likewise.

evil which is found in their perverse will shall perish eternally. For the expressions “demon,” “devil,” “the enemy,” and “death” are not applicable to the nature but to the evil will.

St. Augustine has taught you that “in the Devil God shall punish not that which He created but that which He did not create ;”

Зло не природно

So the race of demons is not evil insofar as nature is observed, but rather insofar as it is not.

They are called evil, and rightly so, because of their deprivation of, flight and fall from the

goods that are proper to them : that is to say, they are evil according to what they are not ; and since they are desirous of what does not exist they are desirous of evil.’

Демоны искали того, чего нет.

В каком-то смысле они искали Хэн, божественное Ничто. Апофатическое начало

Но они искали этого в обход божественного Бытия.

А раз так, они не взлетели, а пали, низринувшись в нижние области материи – к ничто, но только тварному, а не Божественному.

only nature shall rise again

Природа чиста – а вот воля может быть и такой и иной.

humanity ἀνθρωπία that is ἄνω τηροῦσα ὀπία  a turning towards what is above  “holding the gaze aloft”

человек = esse velle scire Августин

Дионисий Ареопагит человек = сущность усия, потенция (дюнамис) акт (энергия)

Воскрешение людей: не такими какими были, а такими, какими должны были бы быть!

Общее возвращение и специальное возвращение

There is a general Return and a special Return.

  1. The general Return is the lot of all things which shall be brought back to the Principle of their creation:
  2. the special Return, of those which shall not only be restored to the Primordial Causes of their nature, but shall achieve the consummation of their Return, beyond every rank in the hierarchy of nature, in the Cause of all things, which is God.

Специальное возвращение

7 фаз

The path they traverse can, as it were, be divided into seven stages : 

  1. the first will be the transformation of the earthly body into vital motion;
  2. the second of vital motion into sensation;
  3. the third of sensation into reason;
  4. then of reason into mind, wherein lies the end of every rational creature ;

then this fivefold unification of the parts of our nature, in which 

  1. body,
  2. vital motion,
  3. sensation,
  4. reason and
  5. mind are

no longer five but one,  in each case the lower nature becoming absorbed in the higher not so as to lose its existence but to become with that higher nature one, 

shall be followed by

three more stages of the ascent :

  1. first the transformation of mind into the knowledge of all things which come after God ;
  2. secondly, of that knowledge into wisdom, that is into the innermost contemplation of the Truth, in so far as that is possible to a creature;
  3. thirdly, and lastly, the supernatural merging of the perfectly purified souls into God Himself, and their entry into the darkness of the incomprehensible and inaccessible Light which conceals the Causes of all things.

Five of those stages lie within the limits of nature, while three lie beyond nature and beyond being in God Himself. Then the fivefold number of the creature shall be united with the threefold number of the Creator, so that in nothing shall it be manifested save as God alone, in the same way as in the most purified air nothing is manifested save the light alone.

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